FDA Approved Long-Term Prescription Weight Loss Drugs

Weight Loss Drugs

Prescription drugs, also referred to as ethical drugs, are drugs that are usually FDA-approved and that can only be purchased through the approval of a registered physician.

The different array of available FDA-approved prescription weight loss medications can generally be classified into two different groups based on their recommended duration of use – short- or long-term. This article will be looking at the different types of long-term prescription weight loss drugs that have been approved by the FDA.

Before proceeding, it is important to remember that these long-term prescription weight loss drugs are only recommended for individuals who are considered either overweight (with a BMI that is between 27 and 30 and that have obesity-related health conditions) or obese (with a BMI over 30 and that also have obesity-related health conditions). Some of the obesity-related conditions include heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or diabetes that are generally detrimental to their lives.

Unlike the short-term FDA-approved prescription weight loss drugs that all happen to be appetite suppressants, the long-term prescription FDA-approved variants are made of two different types of drugs based on their generic names as well as their functions.

Sibutramine (Meridia or Reductil)

Sibutramine sold under the brand name Meridia in the United States and as Reductil in other countries was approved by the FDA in 1997 as a long-term weight loss medication for use up to two years for the treatment of obesity.

Sibutramine is an appetite suppressant like most of the other FDA-approved short-term weight loss drugs only that it has been approved for long-term use which might be responsible for its popularity.

Sibutramine works by inhibiting the reuptake of the catecholamines – norepinephrine, and dopamine, as well as serotonin. While norepinephrine and dopamine (a precursor of epinephrine, aka adrenaline) increase both blood pressure and the rate and depth of breathing, and decrease in the activities of the intestines, serotonin on the other hand, carries signals of satisfaction from nerve cells to the brain.

Reuptake is a process of chemical re-absorption by the body. During the process of reuptake, once neurotransmitters have been secreted into synapses (the gaps between nerve endings) and have passed on their chemical signals, the presynaptic neuron – being the nerve cell from which the signal was released – clears the synapse of the neurotransmitter molecules by reabsorbing same.

Sibutramine blocks the reuptake process thereby allowing the neurotransmitters to remain in the synapse for a longer period of time which consequently prolongs its ability to act as a signal. This leads to increased levels of the circulating amounts of these neurotransmitters in the body which then makes you to feel more energetic and satiated for longer periods of time even with lesser amount of food intake.

Additionally, Sibutramine also inhibits neuropeptide Y – a neurotransmitter which is believed to signal the body to eat, decrease physical activity levels, and increase fat storage.

Some studies have shown that 85% of obese patients taking sibutramine lost at least 5 percent of their body weight while at 57 percent lost an average of 10 percent of their body weight. However, safety and efficacy of sibutramine beyond two years have not been established.

However, sibutramine has been associated with some side effects which include but not limited to increased blood pressure, dry mouth, headache, constipation, and insomnia. Also people with a history of uncontrolled high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, heart disease, or stroke are strongly advised not to make use of sibutramine.

Orlistat (Xenical)

On the 26th of April 1999, the FDA approved the first non-appetite suppressing prescription weight loss medication known as Orlistat for long-term use. Orlistat, also known as tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), is a crystalline power that is whitish in color and is classified under the drug class called lipase inhibitors.

Orlistat, marketed under the brand name Xenical by Roche prevents the digestion and absorption of dietary fats into the bloodstream by inhibiting the pancreatic enzyme lipase. Orlistat reduces the production level of pancreatic lipase which is the enzyme that breakdowns fats within the intestines thereby stopping ingested dietary fat from being hydrolyzed into free fatty acids which are usually more readily absorbed into the bloodstream. Consequently, the undigested fat is excreted through bowel movements within feces.

Lipase inhibitors have been found to reduce the amount of absorbed dietary fat that goes into the human body by as much as 30%. Orlistat, itself, is only slightly absorbed into the body although most of it is taken into the gastrointestinal tract and subsequently excreted in the stool.

When combined with a nutritionally balanced, reduced-calorie diet, orlistat when taken for six months helped adults lose 12.4 to 13.4 pounds on average according to recent studies which corroborated those performed before sibutramine was approved by the FDA.

The known side effects associated with using orlistat have mostly been reported within the first year of use with most of the severity and number of problems diminishing over time as the body becomes accustomed to the drug. Most of these side effects however tend to be acute, especially following the consumption of fatty foods and include diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and loose, fatty, or oily stools.

Additional side effects might include abdominal, rectal, or chest pain; nasal congestion and difficult breathing; fever and headaches; as well as runny nose, sneezing and sore throat. Preliminary medical claims indicate that orlistat may also increase the risk of breast and colon cancers – however further scientific research is necessary to validate these claims.

Furthermore, orlistat is known to inhibit the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins especially A, D, E, and K as well as beta carotene. Therefore users are advised to take multivitamin supplements at least once daily. Lastly, the long-term safety of orlistat use is not known.

If you are instead more interested and searching for weight loss supplements than offer your body more diverse health benefits with little or no side effects, then you might want to consider using Phen375.

Phen375, also known as Phentemine375, is a new clinically proven and effective pharmaceutical-grade appetite suppressant and fat burner.

Manufactured in FDA registered pharmaceutical laboratories in California, Phen375 is made from high quality active ingredients such as Dimethylpentalyne, Trimethylxanthine, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and L-carnitine. These compounds go to work instantly to help fast track and boost your body’s fat burning capabilities.

The combination of these compounds in Phen375 effectively makes it the MOST POWERFUL legalized non-prescription weight loss medication on the market that offers you an easy route to safe and healthy weight loss.

Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

Metabolic Rate

Most people are fond of referring to either having a slow or a fast metabolism. This inference is often made to explain why some people find it very easy putting on weight but difficult losing the weight. While the fact remains that metabolism does affect a person’s ability to lose weight, there is more to it than meets the eye.

Metabolism is the rate at which your body burns calories by means of continuously running chemical processes inside your body in order for it to stay alive and to function normally. In simpler terms, metabolism can also be referred to as the process through which your body converts food into either energy or fat.

Those with a fast metabolic rate will burn calories faster so that there is no storage of excess fat in the body whereas those who have a slow or poor metabolic rate will burn calories a lot of slower and thus causing the body to store the extra calories as fat in the body.

The most important factor in determining overall metabolic rate and thus how much calories is required to maintain, lose or gain weight is what is referred to as the “resting metabolic rate” RMR or “basal metabolic rate” BMR. It is the energy required by the body to maintain vital bodily functions such as heart rate, body temperature, brain function, blood pressure, and respiration while the body is at rest.

Thus the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) refers to the energy your body needs to maintain itself and this accounts for about 50-80 per cent of your total energy usage which automatically makes it the biggest contributor to your overall metabolic rate.

However, there are several interdependent factors – all working in combination – that influence your BMR. While we can influence some of these factors mostly involving physical activities, there are those we simply cannot control. Here is a list of some of these factors in no particular order.

Genetics

Like they say, it’s all in the genes. Differences in our genetic predispositions make some people to naturally have a faster metabolism, while others have a naturally slow metabolism. While you cannot change genetics, you can still win the battle against excess weight gain.

Hormones

There are certain glands in the body especially the thyroid and adrenal glands that play major roles in regulating the body’s BMR. Adrenalin produced by the adrenal glands increases BMR, however to a lesser degree. The thyroid gland produces a chemical called thyroxin which generally speeds up the metabolic activities of the body.

Hypothyroidism (inability of the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroxin) slows down metabolism and usually leads to weight gain, lethargy, constipation and depression. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism – overactive thyroid – releases greater amount of thyroxin than necessary and generally speeds up metabolism and causes weight loss, increased appetite and often nervousness.

Gender

On an average, men have a BMR of about 7,100KJ per day while women have about 5,900KJ per day. This is mostly due to the effect of male sex hormones which men to have a greater muscle mass and lower body fat percentage as compared to women. This means that men require a higher metabolism to main their muscles thus increasing their basal metabolic rate.

Age

After the age of 30 (some experts argue at 25), there is a decrease in the metabolic rate of both men and women due to a loss in muscle tissue coupled with both hormonal and neurological changes. However, regular exercise in adulthood can help in slowing this process and increasing metabolism.

Body Weight

BMR increases with weight and therefore heavier people need a lot more calories to maintain their body weights.

Body Size

This has to do with your height and weight ratios. The higher your total body surface area is, the more body cells there are to maintain requiring more calories, thus leading to a higher BMR.

Body Fat Percentage

Fat cells are generally sluggish and burn far fewer calories than other body tissues and organs. Therefore your body composition – difference between total lean weight and fat weight – goes a long way to determine the speed of your metabolism.

Lean body weight is more metabolically active at rest thus individuals with a higher percentage of lean body weight have a higher basal metabolic rate when compared with individuals of the same weight who have a higher body fat percentage.

Diet

Super low calorie diets, eating disorders or starvation can cause the body to enter into “starvation mode” which essentially slows down your metabolism to keep your body from burning too much calories.

Temperature

Internal and external temperatures that affect the body’s temperature have an effect on BMR as the body keeps trying to maintain a constant body temperature. When the body feels cold, it will need to burn up more calories to produce heat to keep warm. When it feels too hot, the body also burns more calories through the process of sweating.

Drugs

Certain drugs like nicotine and caffeine are known to influence the speed of metabolism. However the increase is temporary and the risks generally outweigh the benefits.

Exercise

Regular physical exercise helps in burning calories while exercising and also in building extra lean tissue which is more metabolically active while you are resting than fat tissue.

What are Weight Loss Patches

A “weight loss patch” or “diet patch” is basically a new and innovative small self-adhesive bandage-like substance placed on the skin that is supposed to assist in decreasing an individual’s appetite and also increasing his or her metabolism in order to reduce weight naturally. Generally, the ingredients used are in weight loss patches are made from 100% natural ingredients making them essentially harmless.

Also, unlike most diet pills which need to be taken several times a day, a weight loss patch only need a single daily application. It can be used pretty easily and with little or no discomfort whatsoever as all you need to do is affix it to your skin in the morning and leave it on for the rest of the day – making its effect available on a 24hr basis.

Weight lost patches essentially function in two basic ways. On the one hand, they help in the reduction of the amount of food intake as they practically suppress your appetite for food. A reduction in food intake directly translates into reduced calories automatically burning off excess body fat.

Then again, weight loss patches also help in the increase of body metabolism. This also helps in the burning off calories at an accelerated rate. This double-edged of reducing your appetite for food and drastically increasing your body metabolism make using weight loss patches a strategic method in weight reduction.

Pharmaceutical companies have over the years struggled with how to effectively get the effective ingredients in their medications into the body without them getting lost in the digestive process. In general, only about 5% of the most active ingredients in medications get into the blood stream as most are destroyed in the stomach and liver before ever reaching the bloodstream.

Weight Loss Patches

Scientifically, certain drugs have been discovered that have the ability to penetrate the human skin through its capillary networks and equally remain effective at absorbed low doses. Basically these kind of drugs can be transdermally (through the skin) applied instead of being orally taken or injected. Patches are today a more preferred mode of medicine delivery mostly because they have controlled-release capability unlike oral intakes and injections.

Traditional medication applications deliver a high concentration of doses into the blood stream which soon wears off and drops to a very low level and thus requiring a re-intake of the medication to maintain its effectiveness in the body. On the other hand, the controlled-release capability of patches enable the delivery of medication into the blood stream at a constant and safe level.

Thus, the recent popularity and effectiveness of weight loss patches have gradually developed over the last few years owing to rapid advancements in the development of “transdermal technology” and its high success rate in other medical applications. Consequently, patches have been around for decades and have been successfully used in various medical application such as the nicotine transdermal patches(given to people trying to quit smoking), motion sickness treatment, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and in diabetic patches.

However while there is a lot of promise about the effectiveness of weight loss patches, many so-called patches have failed to live up to expectation while others are simply just scams cashing in on its rising popularity and acclaimed effectiveness. Then again, most users are of the opinion that once applied, this supposed “miracle” patch will automatically help them get rid of their excess body weight while they virtually do nothing on their part.

The individual effectiveness of a weight loss patch essentially depends on what ingredients were used and method of preparation. Nonetheless, there are diet patches that are very effective.

The chemical composition of most weight loss patches comprise of a combination of the following: Guarana (a metabolism-boosting stimulant); Chromium (for reducing appetite and regulating blood sugar levels); 5-HTP (a neurotransmitter that elevates mood and also increase metabolism), and Garcinia Cambogia (blocks absorption of carbohydrates).

Weight loss patches are no doubt a highly welcomed development in the slimming world especially for those who find it difficult taking tablet, detest the textures of shakes or who generally find it difficult remembering to take their medications as at when due.

Weight Loss

Equally, weight loss patches are a great incentive for developing a healthier lifestyle for individuals who are finding it difficult controlling their appetite and the quantity of their meal sizes.

Also, like other weight loss medication and diet system, a weight loss patch will not cause you to shed pounds on its own. To get the best result from the use of weight loss patches, it is very important to maintain an healthy lifestyle (healthy diet and exercise plan) and to achieve maximum and lasting result.

With the use of weight loss patches, all you’ve have to do is to make sure that you engage in exercises that generally help you to keep fit without all the anxiety associated with training to lose weight entirely through exercising alone. Coupled with regular fitness exercise using a weight loss patch gives you a double-edged sword in your fight against excess body fat with fabulous results in little or no time.

Ketogenic Diets – Are They The Best for Weight Loss

Ketogenic Diets

All food is made up of three essential components or macronutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Diets used for weight loss generally focus on calorie reduction or the manipulation of the intake of these three macronutrients. Ketogenic diets, however paradoxical their underlying principle may sound, manipulate the macronutrient carbohydrate, and have somewhat achieved some of the most remarkable and rapid weight loss effect.

Ketogenic diets are a group of “high-fat, moderate protein” or “high-protein, moderate fat” but very low-carbohydrate diets. The name ketogenic refers to the increased production of ketone bodies due to an increased rate of lipolysis (fat breakdown). Ketones are essentially acidic compounds formed during the intermediate metabolism of “fat” into “fatty acids” and ketone bodies by the liver.

The first sets of ketogenic diets were developed as far back as the early 1920s by the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Epilepsy Center and by Dr. R.M. Wilder of the Mayo Clinic to treat children with hard to control seizures. The diets provided about 10-15 grams of carbohydrates per day, 1 gram of protein per kilogram of the patient’s body weight, and the remaining calories from fat. The diets were intended to mimic the biochemical changes that take place during periods of fasting – ketosis, acidosis, and dehydration. The diets were developed as replacements for the natural fasting method that has been successfully used in earlier periods of history for treating epilepsy but which was not sustainable for long-term treatment.

 

They were successfully used until the late 1930s when the first anticonvulsant drug — phenytoin (Dilantin) and other subsequent variants were developed which lead to a significant reduction in the use of the ketogenic diet as patients turned to the new methods. Ketogenic diet were therefore virtually forgotten in the treatment of epilepsy until the mid 1990s when cases of epilepsy patients who were nonresponsive to any medical or surgical procedure were successfully treated once again using a ketogenic diet. Currently, ketogenic diets are used by majority of doctors in over 40 countries of the world in treating epilepsy patients.

However, the underlying principles of ketogenic diets were obviously adopted in the 1970s by a cardiologist, Dr. Robert Atkins when he formulated his very popular diet called the Atkins Diet. Ketogenic diet promoters like Dr. Atkins, are strongly of the opinion that carbohydrates, especially the low-glycemic index ones are a major cause of weight. Carbohydrates break down into glucose, a form of sugar that is generally regarded as the preferred primary energy source for cells in the body. Although the body can break down muscle and fat to provide energy, it prefers to get it from low-glycemic index carbohydrates.

The glucose derived from carbohydrate-containing foods can be argued to be the major culprit when it comes to fat storage and increase in unwanted weight gain when compared to the other macronutrients – protein and fat. Fat in the diet easily correlates to weight gain – true; but an even worse enemy exists. This is because of all the three macronutrients, carbohydrates are the ones that are so quickly absolved into the bloodstream. Their fast absorption rate easily causes fluctuation in blood sugar levels leading to the body overproducing insulin – a hormone that regulates blood glucose level and considered the maintainer of the energy in/energy out equation that rules body weight.

Insulin generally causes the body to store glucose in the liver and muscle cells as glycogen and as fat in fat cells (adipose tissues). Excess amount of glucose in the bloodstream causes increased insulin secretion leading to the storage of the excess glucose. This can very easily cause significant weight gain if carbohydrate intake is uncontrolled either due to a “conditioned eating” or an “emotional eating” problem. Thus ketogenic diets aim to reduce insulin production to its barest minimum by drastically reducing carbohydrate consumption and advocating the use of alternative energy derived from either fats or proteins as the body’s primary energy source.

However, despite the ability of ketogenic diets to reduce insulin production and forestall weight gain, their main objective is ultimately aimed at inducing ketosis. Ketogenic diets are therefore generally believed to be favorably disposed to the encouragement and promotion of the state of ketosis. Ketosis is a state or condition in which the rate of formation of ketones produced by the liver is greater than the ability of body tissues to oxidize them. Ketosis is actually a secondary state of the process of lipolysis (fat breakdown) and is a common side effect of low-carbohydrate diets.

A state of ketosis can be deliberately induced either through prolonged starvation/low-calorie intake or by use of a low-carbohydrate diet of ingesting large amounts of either fat or protein in the absence of adequate amounts of carbohydrate. High-fat and high-protein diets are the major weight loss diets generally used to deliberately induce ketosis.

Therefore, ketosis is a very efficient form of energy production that does not involve the production of insulin as the body instead burns its fat supply for energy. The idea of reducing carbohydrate intake to decrease insulin production and to also practically force the body into burning its fat store for energy not only sounds intriguing but actually means that the use of ketogenic diets can be very powerful in achieving rapid weight loss.

weight loss

Ketogenic diets are designed in such a way that they initially force the body to exhaust its glucose supply and then to finally switch to burning stored fat for energy. Subsequent food intakes after inducing ketosis are meant to sustain the fat burning process by appropriately adjusting further carbohydrate intake to provide just the basic amount of calories needed from it by the body. The diets therefore recommend a carbohydrate intake that allows the dieter to neither gain nor lose weight through understanding his or her individual Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance (CCLM).

Although a lot of people often insinuate that the weight loss experienced when using a ketogenic diet is mostly because of water loss, this argument does not however hold much truth. It must be realized that any form of weight loss diet plan must oxidize fat in order to work. The process of fat oxidation (fat burning) called lipolysis produces adenosine triphosphate, or ATP (the fundamental unit of energy), carbon dioxide, and water. So any type of diet used for weight loss must result in certain amount of water loss.

This is however not denying the fact that there is a lot of water loss when using a ketogenic diet but this drastic water loss is only experienced during the initial phases of the diet when inducing the state of ketosis. Water loss during this phase is due to the fact that increased glucagon secretion due to significantly reduced insulin production causes the body to start using up its glycogen reserves in liver and muscle cells. Since a glycogen molecule is comprised of about 75% water, it makes sense why there should be a significant amount of water loss during this phase of a ketogenic diet.

However, as earlier mentioned, ketogenic diets are ultimately aimed at the secondary stage of the lipolysis (fat burning) process called ketosis and not just the ketosis-inducing phase itself. Since the last phases of the diet focuses on the dieter consuming the amount of carbohydrate to correlates to his or her Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance – CCLM (this being the amount of carbohydrate that causes neither gain nor lose of weight), the lost muscles should be able to replenish themselves.

There however appear to be one major misunderstanding concerning the state of accumulation of ketones in the bloodstream. This is because there are actually two different but commonly confused states that cause an elevated accumulation of ketones in the bloodstream – ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is induced by low blood sugar levels while ketoacidosis on the other hand is a condition caused by increased blood sugar levels in Type 1 diabetic persons due to insufficient insulin production and the body’s increased counter-regulatory hormone production.

Nonetheless, there need to be caution especially concerning the type of fat that is consumed when using either a high-fat or high-protein low carbohydrate diet. Eliminating saturated fats and eating more of the essential fatty acids (EFAs) as part of the diet, will actually help to promote overall healthy eating habit and make the best use of the ketogenic diet. Also, there is need to drink a lot of water due to the increased acidity level of the body.

In 2003, the Johns Hopkins treatment center came up with modified versions of the popular Atkins Diet protocol to treat a group of 20 children with epilepsy. The treatment of the 20 patients found that two-thirds experienced significant seizure reduction. Also, while 9 were able to reduce their medication dosages, practically none developed kidney stones.

There are also ongoing studies by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on the effectiveness of the classic ketogenic diet as well as modified versions of the Atkins Diet in weight reduction as well as the treatment of epilepsy. Equally, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is presently carrying out studies not just on the effects of ketogenic diets but also how to formulate medications that will be able to produce the same effect on weight loss.

Ketosis and Ketoacidosis – The Relationship to Using Low-Carbohydrate Diets

Ketoacidosis

When people use weight loss diet plans such as the ketogenic diets which promote the consumption of “high-fat” or “high-protein” foods while significantly reducing the amount of consumed carbohydrate, their bodies tend to produce abnormal amounts of ketone bodies.

Ketogenic diets like the popular Atkins Diet, believe that carbohydrates are the major cause of weight gain and thus are designed to restrict the amount of carbohydrate consumed in their diets. Using this underlying principle, ketogenic diets have been shown to actually achieve two very important weight loss goals which are: (a) they lead to reduced insulin production due to the resultant low blood sugar levels; and (b) they practically force the body to start breaking down its stored fat for energy. The combination of these two factors makes ketogenic diets very effective in causing rapid weight loss.

Carbohydrates are generally digested to yield glucose, which is considered to be the preferred energy source for body cells. Despite the fact that the body can break down muscle and fat cells to provide energy, it prefers to get it from low-glycemic index carbohydrate-containing foods. However, after certain hours of acute glucose deprivation as is generally induced by ketogenic diets by forcing the body to exhaust its glucose supply, the body finally has no other option but to turn to burning its stored body fat as its primary source of energy.

At this stage the body essentially increases the rate of the normal process of lipolysis (fat burning) in order to meet up with its energy demands and this consequently forces the body into the secondary phase of lipolysis called ketosis. Ketosis is a state or condition in which the rate of formation of ketones, a by-product of the breakdown of “fat” into “fatty acids” by the liver, is greater than the ability of tissues to oxidize them.

 

Ketones are therefore acidic compounds produced from the incomplete breakdown of “fats” into “fatty acids” and “ketones” by the liver when there is insufficient carbohydrate intake. Under normal circumstances, ketone bodies are quickly oxidized to water and carbon dioxide. However, the state of ketosis causes an increased accumulation of ketone bodies in the bloodstream as well as in the urine as the body tries to excrete the excess amount from the bloodstream. The increased build up of ketones in the state of ketosis raises the body’s acidity levels forcing the body to attempt normalizing this by using up more water reserves from body cells to flush out the accumulated ketones.

Unfortunately, there has been a lot of disconcerting information about the state of elevated buildup of ketones in the body. Therefore, it becomes important to note that apart from ketosis, another condition called ketoacidosis can also cause an increased production and accumulation of ketones in the bloodstream. Ketoacidosis (a.k.a. Diabetic Ketoacidosis – DKA) is a serious health condition of accumulated ketone bodies in the bloodstream in Type 1 diabetic persons which results from their inability to produce sufficient insulin and a counteracting increase in counter-regulatory hormones.

Insulin deficiency in a diabetic person leads to hyperglycemia (abnormal rise in blood sugar level). In hyperglycemia, there may be as much as four times the normal amount of sugar in the bloodstream. Normally, when there is an elevated increase in blood sugar levels, the excess is removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

Hyperglycemia by itself is not lethal but the side effects can be life threatening. It generally leads to glycosuria (glucose in the urine), increased urination, and dehydration. However, it should be noted that the secretion of glucose in the urine is not necessarily an indication of diabetes as it may also appear in normal individuals immediately following a large meal.

The continued excretion of glucose from the urine and the dehydration make the body to become starved of energy. To control and reduce the increased blood sugar level, the body may continue excreting glucose in the urine causing an even worse condition, Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia State (HHS), which has a mortality rate of about 15 percent in persons with this condition.

Conversely, the body may begin to break down triglycerides (stored body fat) which cause the release of ketones (the by-products of fat breakdown by the liver) into the urine and bloodstream. This is condition results in an increased accumulation of ketones in the bloodstream and is what is known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis – DKA. What actually makes ketoacidosis particular different from ketosis is that while there is an elevated amount of accumulated ketones in both conditions, the former interrelated increase in blood sugar levels. This condition poses a serious health risk in Type 1 diabetic patients and the most frequent cause of mortality.

As a note of caution, dieters using a ketogenic diet must ensure that they drink a lot of water due to the increased acidity level of the body. This helps to flush out the accumulated ketones and also to keep the body well hydrated.

Conclusively, while ketosis is caused by low blood sugar levels, ketoacidosis is however caused by increased blood sugar level. Obviously while ketone accumulation in the bloodstream and urine is present in both conditions, their causes are however poles apart. Only Type 1 diabetics need worry about ketoacidosis.

Eating Before Sleeping? What To Eat Before Bed

Eating Before Sleeping

I received an email from someone a few days ago asking whether to eat before bedtime and whether it will effect their fat loss efforts. In this article I’d like to clarify my opinion on eating before sleeping and give a few examples of what to eat before bed.

Let me begin by reassuring you that there are NO conclusive studies that have shown that eating before sleeping causes weight gain – it won’t hamper your weight loss progress. What will affect your weight loss efforts is eating more calories than you need over the course of a day. So, if you are piling on extra calories before you go to bed then of course you will gain weight!

So what foods should you eat before sleeping?

Well as I always suggest; you should be eating a portion of vegetables and a portion of lean protein with every meal and that advice is no different when you are deciding what to eat before bed. My opinion is that you should be eating every 2-3 hours so if you are due another meal then make sure you take it ensuring you stay within your maintenance level of calories.

 

If you do decide to eat before you sleep then you should definitely be avoiding spicy, fatty foods and caffeine drinks – these can reduce the quality of your sleep, lead to heartburn and make you feel sluggish and fatigued when you wake up. Foods with a high fat content a the biggest no-no – they slow down digestion and help exacerbate indigestion.

Alcohol is also out – it may promote sleep but it commonly leads to awakening a few hours later, it also inhibits the body’s natural fat burning response and causes dehydration. With that being said you may want to know which food you can eat before going to bed? I’ll share my advice on that now…

Here are a few examples of good food you can eat before going to bed:

  • Cottage cheese
  • Protein supplement (ideally casein protein for slow absorption)
  • Celery
  • Chicken breast
  • Skimmed milk
  • Low fat yogurt
  • Flaxseed oil
  • Turkey breast

In addition to these foods pretty much any fibrous vegetable would be a good choice as well as fresh fruits.
Water is also essential to stock up on before bedtime just don’t go overboard or else you will be visiting the bathroom all night! A glass of cold water is ideal and helps keep your body hydrated through the night.
So remember eating before bedtime is not the problem – it’s what you eat and how much you have eaten throughout the day. Make sure you choose the right kind of weight loss diet plan and follow the advice I have offered here – don’t fall for all the mythical eating before sleeping claims that many weight loss guru’s tell you. You know exactly what to eat before bed now; Your body is important – give it what it needs!

Is Your Weight Loss Diet Weighing You Down?

weight loss diet

Americans spend billions upon billions of dollars every year trying to get in shape. We try weight loss diet after weight loss diet, only to fail miserably, or lose a little and then gain it back once we stop the diet. We’ve all heard the advice that “diets don’t work,” but what DOES work? Is there really a healthy weight loss diet we can start today and stay on– reasonably–forever?

There is no simple answer to this question. There is so much confusing research and so many conflicting studies that people don’t know where to turn. Every book that comes out claims to contain the latest and greatest weight loss diet. Every guru you see on TV says they have the secret. But it seems that every time you try something new, you end up disappointed.

So, when you need a weight loss diet, what should you look for? There are a few basic principles that everyone should keep in mind when searching for a weight loss diet. Let’s mention them briefly.

 

First, many experts would probably agree that the solution to America’s weight problem can be summed up in one phrase: calories in, calories out. Speaking strictly about weight loss (not necessarily about health), in order to lose weight you must burn off more calories than you consume. Every pound equates to 3500 calories. So even if you consume 2000 calories every day, if you don’t burn off 2000 or more, you’ll gain weight. If you consume 1500 calories and burn off 2000, you’ll lose weight. It sounds simple, but as anyone who’s ever tried (and failed) to lose weight can tell you, it isn’t that easy! People have varying opinions on how your weight loss diet should go about achieving the proper calories in / calories out ratio, but calories certainly do matter when you’re on a weight loss diet.

Second, look for something that makes good nutritional sense to you. A weight loss diet that promises a 10-pound loss in a weekend might sound great, but if you achieve that loss by consuming only some special juice or lemon water for three days, you’re probably smart to give that program the heave-ho. A good weight loss diet will allow you to consume fewer calories without losing vital nutrients or risking your health. And any weight loss diet that works that quickly and requires such drastic measures will likely result in weight GAIN over the long haul.

Third, any weight loss diet or program you go on should encourage exercise. If they tell you that exercise is not required, they’re not looking out for your health. Even when you’re not on a weight loss diet or trying to get into shape, exercise is good for you and beneficial in too many ways to count. Some exercise, even a little, is better than none at all. Any weight loss diet that encourages or promises substantial, “healthy” weight loss without exercise is better left alone.

Basically, look for a program that isn’t too extreme. You need a weight loss diet that you can stick with–at least most of the time. Beware those lofty promises of miraculous losses, all while eating ice cream and sitting on the couch. A weight loss diet that’s worth trying will require some work. It will ask you to make some modifications to your current lifestyle, but without sacrificing your health.

Weight Loss For Women With Pear Shaped Physique

Weight Loss For Women

When we are preparation to start a diet, it is quite prevalent that we start to think is there weight loss for women with pear shaped physique? We feel down considering most women are pear shaped. We also believe considering we are not healthy due to the excess fats and pounds on our bodies that causes the pear shape physique.

Here are some tips to ensure weight loss for women with pear shaped physique:

Try fitness shoes on. Today there are many fitness shoes catered to pear shaped physiques that will help you lose weight just by walking. Even in case you always wear the same size you’ll want to try fitness shoes on prior to you acquire them. Every fitness shoe includes a slightly a variety of fit and you need to ensure that you just get the best fit. Walk close to during the shoes to test them out previous to you decide.

 

Eat foods that are low on the glycemic index (GI). This index measures how a lot a certain food raises blood sugar levels – key for weight loss purposes, since a spike in blood sugar effects in a corresponding insulin spike, triggering the system to store fat. Over time, this can even trigger so-called “insulin resistance” (meaning the entire body releases much more and a lot more insulin to respond to increased blood sugar) and diabetes. Knowing the glycemic index values of well-liked meals and picking meals that are low over a GI scale can help you lose your pear shaped physique.

This is the reason it is not wise to take anything at all, but particularly refined carbs, inside several hours of one’s bedtime, since the entire body becomes steadily much less able to convert the consumed calories into energy and is far more almost certainly to merely store them as body fat.

Go on a diet based on your body type. The Diet Solution Program ensures weight loss for women with pear shaped physique by providing numerous menus, plans and even support. Most programs just tell you this is your shape, this is what you should eat. The Diet Solution Program under promises and over delivers when it comes to value and service.

Angie Langworth is a nutritionist who has spent 10 years advising clients on how to lose weight. For weight loss for women with pear shaped physique she recommends The Diet Solution.

Vegetarian Nutrition – Choosing A Diet Plan

Vegetarian Nutrition

If you need vegetarian nutrition finding the right type of diet weight loss program is sometimes difficult. Choosing the right extreme weight loss diet is never an easy process, normally there are at least a few foods on the menu that you dislike or are allergic to and when you are a vegetarian things become even more complicated. So which diet should you choose if you want vegetarian nutrition? The rest of this article will point you in the right direction and have you on your way to getting a flat stomach in no time at all!

There are a lot of great diets out there even if you are vegetarian, so it all depends on what you are looking for and how motivated you are as to which one you choose. The main thing you should look for if you’re a vegetarian is that your chosen diet is balanced so as to ensure you get all the nutrients your body needs.

It’s important to make sure you’re getting enough protein with your vegetarian nutrition. Protein is made of amino acids, some of these cannot be produced in the body, these are known as “essential amino acids”. These essential amino acids are abundant in meats, fish, poultry and eggs, all of which include the full spectrum, but of course, strict vegetarians won’t want to include any of these foods in their diet and so must find other protein sources to compensate.

With you vegetarian nutrition look to include a wide variety of the following protein rich foods into you diet plan:

  • Nuts and seeds
  • Pulses (beans and lentils)
  • Wheat proteins (cereals, rice and maize)
  • Soya and soya based products such as tofu
  • Quinoa
  • Mycoprotein, sold as Quorn™

Of the foods mentioned above, only soya and quinoa contain the complete mix of essential amino acids so you should do your best to ensure you are eating different types of these protein foods at the same time. Depending which type of vegetarian nutrition you adhere to you can also include milk and dairy products including eggs.

Don’t rely on just one type of protein because you will be missing out on nutrients, also many vegetarians for example, rely heavily on cheese to get protein and because of this their saturated fat intake is extremely high. One final piece of advice would for vegetarians who don’t take milk or dairy products is to make sure they include soya or oat drinks which are fortified with calcium or take a calcium supplement daily.

Adapting most diets to a vegetarian nutrition one is usually fairly simple but of course, it is quicker and easier if the diet program you are looking at already have a vegetarian option in place. One of my favoured programs is the Fat Loss 4 Idiots diet, few people are aware that this idiot proof diet plan has a dedicated vegetarian version and the bottom line is, it works just as well as the regular version! That means even veggies can achieve lose 9 pounds in 11 days results!

The Fat Loss 4 Idiots diet generator includes an option which you can select to create a vegetarian nutrition program – you won’t need to count calories or read labels – this nutrition for dummies plan does the hard work for you, meaning you can concentrate on the most important thing – losing weight fast! The vegetarian Fat Loss 4 Idiots diet follows the same pattern as the regular plan, you will be eating four meals per day, reducing sugar intake and drinking lots of water. Calorie shifting is employed so you are eating different types of foods and for best results you need to incorporate a high quality workout plan – this is nutrition for dummies at its very best.

So, if you are vegetarian, you now have no excuse not to lose weight – there is a simple and effective idiot proof diet out there just for you. Fat Loss 4 Idiots really is one of the best diet plans for weight loss available and it’s diet plan for vegetarians is equally effective. A complete review of Fat Loss 4 Idiots can be found by clicking through the link. Good luck with your vegetarian nutrition – choose wisely and you will flatten your stomach, get rid of love handles and burn fat fast!

15 Best Fat Burning Foods

Best Fat Burning Foods

There is a lot of controversy about foods that help burn fat. Some scientists say there are no fat burning foods while us, who have tried everything to lose weight, have sworn to the following 15 best fat burning foods. I personally do not know if the following 15 foods actually burn fat faster, but what do you have to lose other than some fat?

Best Fat Burning Foods

15 Best Fat Burning Foods

  1. Brussel Sprout
  2. Celery
  3. Cabbage
  4. Carrots
  5. Cucumbers
  6. Garlic
  7. Horseradish
  8. Lettuce
  9. Onions
  10. Tomatoes
  11. Apple Cider Vinegar
  12. Citrus Fruits
  13. Asparagus
  14. Beets
  15. Onions

I would like someone who has tried these 15 best fat burning foods to leave a comment on whether they worked or not. Meanwhile, I did look up in the book Bottom Line’s Secret Food Cures the Apple Cider Solution for weight loss.

First thing in the morning, drink 2 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar in a glass of water. Drink the same mixture before lunch and dinner, thus making it three glasses of apple cider vinegar water.

This book did state that it could be a month or two before you see results. I personally have not tried the apple cider vinegar and water – but will have to say that every morning of my Grandmother’s life – she drank a warm glass of water with apple cider vinegar. She always said that it made her “regular”

This natural remedy book also states that Lecithin is said to break up stubborn fatty deposits in the “bulging areas”. The recommended dosage of Lecithin is 1 to 2 T. of granules a day.

Again – I have not tried these methods, but would love to know if they work!

Weight Loss Tip of the Day:

Losing weight is like playing the quiet game. It takes both patience and determination. Be patient with your self, if you are truly trying to lose weight, have cut down the amount of calories that you eat and have increased your daily activity, you will lose the weight. It may not come off as fast as you want it to; but, it will come off.

Recipe

Grilled Chicken and Pineapple

by Jenny Craig

  • 1 20oz. can of pineapple slices
  • 2 T. lemon juice
  • 1 T vegetable oil
  • 2 teas. oregeno- crushed
  • 1 teas. garlic powder
  • 5 skinless, boneless chicken breasts

Combine the everything except the chicken into a medium sized bowl and mix well. Add the chicken breasts, place a plastic cover over and put in refrigerator to marinate at least 15 minutes. Marinating for an hour if possible is even better. If you can marinate for longer – turn the chicken half way through.

Grill chicken and pineapple for 10 or 15 minutes on each side or until done. Brush with the marinade often. After chicken and pineapple is done, discard the remaining marinade. This can be served over whole grain, brown rice if desired. The chicken and pineapple alone has 290 calories or 39 grams carbohydrates.

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